Glossary

R

Raid
A type of mission in a video game where a very large number of people combine forces to defeat a boss.
Rating
The first step in CDR processing for billing, the rating process calculates charges for calls entering or leaving the network.
RBL
Real-time blacklist: databases of known spammers maintained by ISPs and other industry organisations.
RBOC
Regional Bell Operating Company
RDP
Residence demarcation point
Reciprocal compensation call
A telephone exchange service call, completed between the end users of different carriers, which qualifies for reciprocal compensation. Essentially, it is the payment by telcos to one another for terminating each other’s local exchange traffic.
Request type
A categorisation of local service requests (LSRs) including resale, UNE, platform, directory, operator services and AIN.
Reseller
1) A business entity that purchases telecommunications services at wholesale and sells them to third parties.
2) A service provider that does not own transmission facilities, but obtains communications services from a carrier for resale to the public for profit.
Ring
A network topology in which the physical medium (eg fibre) is distributed to form a closed loop.
Route diversity
The allocation of a circuit between two points but over more than one geographic or physical route. Because there is no single point of failure, this provides carriers with a means of ensuring redundancy in their network and allows them to meet service availability requirements for applications such as disaster recovery and video backhaul. For end users that have extreme needs for diversity or redundancy, every component of the circuit needs to be different, not just the carrier. Route diversity has been a long-standing best practice for business continuity in both private and public sectors. Protocols have been established for maintaining physical diversity of circuits within and across telecoms carriers – know as “diversity assurance” – so that differing definitions and interpretations of “diversity” among telecoms providers and customers regarding maintenance of physical diversity for paired critical circuits may be clearly understood. In the event that the prime carrier cannot provide connectivity from its backbone network, services are contracted to other carriers.
Route server
A device that runs one or more network layer routing protocols.
Routing
Interconnect rates can change on a daily basis, putting pressure on operators    to streamline and automate all aspects of international wholesale and traditional voice business. Management of wholesale capacity agreements, such as bilaterals, transit and hubbing are an integral part of the routing process, which can enhance business performance and plays a vital role in the profitable trading of telecoms traffic. Dedicated network management software is used to conduct various complex tasks such as least cost routing (LCR) or programming of routing commands into various switch types. In packet-switched networks such as the internet, routing refers to router equipment that determines the next network point to which a packet should be forwarded toward its destination. The router is connected to at least two networks and decides which way to send each information packet based on its current understanding of the state of the networks it is connected to. A router may create or maintain a table of the available routes and their conditions and use this information along with distance and cost algorithms to determine the best route for a given packet. Typically, a packet may travel through a number of network points with routers before arriving at its destination. Routing is a function associated with the network layer (Layer 3) in the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. A Layer 3 switch is a switch that can perform routing functions.
RPR
Resilient packet ring: The RPR (or IEEE 802.17) standard defines a new MAC layer to support Ethernet over fibre-optic rings, although it can also be implemented as part of an SDH/Sonet solution.
RTD
Round trip delay
RTP
Real-time transport protocol: IETF standard for streaming real-time multimedia (such as interactive voice and video) over IP.
RTS
Real-time strategy
RTT
Round trip time: the time it takes to send a packet to a remote host and receive a response and is a method of measuring delay on a network at a given time.